Global-warming-induced climate changes and socioeconomic issues increasingly stimulate reviews of renewable energy. Among energy-generation devices, solar cells are often considered as renewable sources of energy. Lately, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are playing a significant role as back/front contact electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ SCs). In particular, the optimized Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) has served as a capable TCO material to improve the efficiency of SHJ SCs, due to excellent physicochemical properties such as high transmittance, electrical conductivity, mobility, bandgap, and a low refractive index. The doped-ITO thin films had promising characteristics and helped in promoting the efficiency of SHJ SCs. Further, SHJ technology, together with an interdigitated back contact structure, achieved an outstanding efficiency of 26.7%. The present article discusses the deposition of TCO films by various techniques, parameters affecting TCO properties, characteristics of doped and undoped TCO materials, and their influence on SHJ SC efficiency, based on a review of ongoing research and development activities.
- ITO thin films
- deposition techniques
- optical properties
- silicon heterojunction solar cells