A Half Century of Oral Rehydration Therapy in Childhood Gastroenteritis: Toward Increasing Uptake and Improving Coverage

Amira M. Khan, James E. Wright, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Termed by the Lancet, as “potentially the most important medical advance of the twentieth century,” therapy with oral rehydration solutions (ORSs) has been essential to reducing mortality in children less than 5 years (under five) with infectious gastroenteritis and diarrhea. The target of the diarrhea-control programs in the 1990s was to achieve ORS use in 80% of diarrhea cases by the year 2000. Nevertheless, nearly 20 years later, global uptake remains limited to only a third of the cases. Our analysis shows that from 1990 to 2017, mean ORS coverage in Countdown countries [the 81 Countdown-to-2030 priority countries, which together account for 95% of maternal deaths and 90% of under-five deaths] increased from ~ 30% to nearly 40%. Flawed government policies, inadequate supplies, and lack of awareness among health workers and communities all contributed to this shortfall in coverage. Moreover, imperfect measurement methodology is implicated in questionable coverage data. A multipronged approach focusing on the manufacture, supply, training, and behavioral change is essential to ensure that ORS is used in all epidemic diarrhea cases globally, especially in the under-five population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-360
Number of pages6
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
Volume65
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

Keywords

  • Child health
  • Coverage
  • Diarrhea
  • ORS
  • ORT
  • Oral rehydration solution
  • Rehydration

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