A Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy to Improve Maternal Periodontal Health and Birth Weight

Farhan Raza Khan, Tashfeen Ahmad, Rabia Hussain, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Studies show that the presence of maternal periodontal disease and hypovitaminosis D are associated with multiple health outcomes in neonates including low birth weight (LBW). It's speculated that vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy may improve birth weight and maternal periodontal health. An interventional study was planned to determine if oral vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women reduces the incidence of LBW among neonates and to determine if oral vitamin D supplementation improves periodontal probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BoP) and clinical attachment loss (AL) among pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted at Jhelum, Pakistan. Pregnant females (n=85) at ∼12 weeks of gestation were recruited. Periodontal parameters such as PD, BoP and the AL were assessed. Blood samples were drawn to measure vitamin D levels and blood indices. The birth weight of the babies born to study participants was also recorded. The study was registered at clinical trials.gov (# NCT01422122). Results: There were 85 pregnant women in the final analysis. Of which 36 were supplemented with vitamin D and 49 were given placebo. Participants were comparable at baseline. Periodontal disease was detected in 5/85 (6%) pregnant mothers. Birth weight of only 63 deliveries could be recorded. The proportion of LBW deliveries was 18/63 (29%). There was no difference in the birth weight and periodontal status of women supplemented with vitamin D compared to placebo. Conclusions: About 6 months oral supplementation of vitamin D to pregnant women did not bring any improvement in their periodontal status. Similarly, no significant improvement was observed in the birth weight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-665
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of International Oral Health
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Low birth weight
  • Vitamin D
  • periodontal health
  • pregnancy outcome

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