A Time Fractional Model of Generalized Couette Flow of Couple Stress Nanofluid with Heat and Mass Transfer: Applications in Engine Oil

Farhad Ali, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Arif, Ilyas Khan, Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to obtain the closed form solutions for the laminar and unsteady couple stress fluid flow. The fluid is allowed to flow between two infinite parallel plates separated by distance $\ell $. Moreover, we have considered that the lower plate is moving with uniform velocity $U_{0} $ and upper plate is stationary. For this purpose, engine oil is taken as a base fluid and to enhance the efficiency of lubricating oil, Molybdenum disulphide nanoparticles are dispersed uniformly in the engine oil. The flow is formulated mathematically in terms of partial differential equations of order four. Furthermore, the derived system of partial differential equations are fractionalized by using the mostly used definition of Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivative. The more general exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are obtained by using the joint applications of Fourier and the Laplace transforms. The effect of different parameters of interest of the obtained general solutions are discussed by sketching graphs. Furthermore, substituting favorable limits of different parameters, four different limiting cases are recovered from our obtained general solutions i.e. (a) Couette flow (b) Classical couple stress fluid (c) Newtonian viscous fluid and (d) in the absence of thermal and concentration. Moreover, the effect of different physical parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are discussed graphically. It is worth noting that couple stress parameter corresponds to a decrease in the velocity profile. In order to observe the differences clearly, all the figures are compared for integer order and fractional order which provide a more realistic approach as compared to the classical model. Additionally, skin friction is calculated at lower as well as upper plate. Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also tabulated. It is noticed that the rate of heat transfer of engine oil can be enhanced up to 12.38% and decrease in mass transfer up to 2.14% by adding Molybdenum disulphide nanoparticles in regular engine oil.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9154382
Pages (from-to)146944-146966
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Caputo-Fabrizo (CF)
  • Couple stress nanofluid (CSNF)
  • Fourier transform (FT)
  • Laplace transform (LT)
  • Molybdenum disulphide (MoS₂)
  • generalized Couette flow


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