Adjunctive surgical procedures enhancing treatment outcome — A literature review

Farheen Fatima, Adeel Tahir Kamal, Mubassar Fida, Maheen Ahmed, Hafiz Taha Mahmood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The face is the most expressive zone of the human body that communicates our feelings and thoughts. This may also influence the interaction between people. The aesthetic adjunctive procedures are life-changing. In contemporary orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgeries are performed to correct the functional aspects of dentofacial deformities. In cases where the aesthetic outcome is not improved, patient dissatisfaction is often encountered. Many adjunctive surgical procedures can be used to enhance the anaesthetics of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical cases. Dwelling not merely on the ideal occlusion, the results could be enhanced by analysing the whole-face to improve the overall treatment outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-710
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • Frontal augmentation
  • Osteotomy
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Rhytidectomy


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