Background and Purpose: Ureteral stents are indispensable tools in endourology, although they often are associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of alfuzosin on urinary symptoms, quality of life, and pain in patients after Double-J ureteral stent placement in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted from July 2008 to May 2009. A total of 130 patients underwent placement of a Double-J stent after retrograde semirigid ureteroscopy for ureteral stones. They were randomized in two groups. Group 1 (n=65) received alfuzosin 10 mg once daily and group 2 (n=65) received placebo for 1 week. Both groups also received standardized analgesia. The stent symptoms were measured and recorded 1 week after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test and Student t test with P<0.05 considered significant. Results: The demographic profile including patient and stone-related parameters were comparable. Group 1 had significantly less urinary symptoms (P<0.05). The quality-of-life assessment was better in the alfuzosin arm than in the placebo arm (P<0.001). The mean pain score was 1.15 in group 1 and 3.89 in the placebo group (P<0.001). None of the patients in either of the arms withdrew from treatment; there were minimal adverse effects in the treatment arm. The limitation of the current work includes relatively smaller sample size and use of single type of stent. Conclusions: Alfuzosin 10 mg once daily in patients with a Double-J stent significantly decreases the bothersome urinary symptoms, besides decreasing significantly the pain associated with the stent.