Analysis of antimicrobial potential of some ficus taxa from District Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

A. Shahzad, M. Ishtiaq, H. Tanveer, M. Waheeda, S. Amin, M. Mehwish, B. Khizar Hayat, M. Asif, A. Arslan, M. Sajid, A. Azhar, H. Atiq

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Some important species of the genus Ficus (Ficus racemosa L.; Ficus auriculata Lour.; Ficus palmata Forssk. and Ficus religiosa L.) from district Bhimber Azad Kashmir were analyzed for examining their antimicrobial potential against different clinical human pathogens viz Bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans. Plant leaves were extracted in Petroleum ether (PE), Chloroform, Methanol and Water in sequential order and antimicrobial activity was tested by using Agar Well Diffusion method and Micro dilution method. The significant activity was shown by plant extracts of four species of genus Ficus against all disastrous pathogens. As methanolic extract of Ficus species showed maximum zone of inhibition (ZI)) 19.3mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 42.7 (µg/ml) against S. aerus and ZI (21.9mm) with MIC (52.9 µg/ml) against A. flavus. Moderate activity was found in Chloroform and Petroleum ether extracts for Ficus species with ZI (47.3 mm) against S. aerus and ZI (57.6mm) against A. flavus. The least ZI (10.4mm) and MIC (43.4 µg/ml) against P. aeruginosa and (10.6mm) and MIC (48.4 µg/ml) against C. albicans were shown by aqueous extract against all experimental human pathogens. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also evaluated by a serial micro-dilution method. It was found that the MBC and MFC is normally two folds of the MIC. The present study depicted that P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were maximum resistant against controlled antibiotics and crude plant extracts of Ficus species while S. aerus and A. flavus showed maximum infection against plant extract of Ficus species. E. coli and F. solani showed moderate resistance to leaf extract of Ficus species. The current study results also revealed that F. racemosa and F. auriculata have more antimicrobial effect than F. palmata and F. religiosa. The conclusions of present study may be helpful in developing possible source of new and effective herbal medicines to treat such infectious diseases which are caused by disastrous human pathogens. These research findings can be better source of novel drug discovery and drug development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-176
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Ecology and Environmental Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Agar well diffusion method
  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Drug development
  • Methanol
  • Minimum inhibitory concentration


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