Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi in South Asia-current status, issues and prospects

Saeed Akhtar, Mahfuzur R. Sarker, Kausar Jabeen, Ahsan Sattar, Aftab Qamar, Naima Fasih

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The human race owes a debt of gratitude to antimicrobial agents, penicillin and its successors that have saved people from tremendous pain and suffering in the last several decades. Unfortunately, this consideration is no more true, as millions of people are prone to the challenging threat of emergence of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and the menace is more distressing in developing countries. Comparable with other bacterial species, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) have been evolving multidrug resistance (MDR) against a wide array of antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, and globally affecting 21 million people with 220 000 deaths each year. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi infections are also endemic in South Asia and a series of antibiotics used to treat these infections, have been losing efficacy against enteric fever. Currently, quinolones are regarded as a choice to treat MDR Salmonella in these regions. Travel-related cases of enteric fever, especially from South Asian countries are the harbinger of the magnitude of MDR Salmonella in that region. Conclusively, the MDR will continue to grow and the available antimicrobial agents would become obsolete. Therefore, a radical and aggressive approach in terms of rational use of antibiotics during treating infections is essentially needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-545
Number of pages10
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2015


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • S. Paratyphi
  • S. Typhi
  • Salmonella
  • South Asia


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