Apprenticeship to simulation - The metamorphosis of surgical training

Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Saleema Begum

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Surgery is a dynamic specialty and surgical competencies are a combination of both technical and non-technical skills. After the inception of the art of surgery, surgical education and training has undergone incredible evolution. The first model of surgical training was introduced in the 19th century and is known as the 'apprenticeship model', followed by the famous 'Halstedian' model. However, a report by the Institute of Medicine challenged the teaching institutions to formulate alternative methods of surgical education to ensure patients' safety and to reduce the fear among patients of them being practised on. Teaching surgical skills outside the operating room to ensure patient safety has laid the foundation of simulation-based training in surgical education. More recently, the focus of surgical training and residency has shifted to competency and outcome-based models. The current review article was planned to describe the evolution and transformation of surgical training over time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S72-S76
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Evolution
  • Simulation
  • Surgical training
  • Technical skills


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