Aspirin delays the onset of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among nulliparous pregnant women: A secondary analysis of the ASPIRIN trial

Avinash Kavi, Matthew K. Hoffman, Manjunath S. Somannavar, Mrityunjay C Metgud, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Janet Moore, Eleanor Nielsen, Norman Goco, Elizabeth M. McClure, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tshefu, Melissa Bauserman, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A. Carlo, Lester Figueroa, Nancy F. Krebs, Saleem Jessani, Sarah Saleem, Robert L GoldenbergPrabirkumar Das, Archana Patel, Patricia L. Hibberd, Fabian Esamai, Sherri Bucher, Marion Koso-Thomas, Robert Silver, Richard J Derman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the impact of low-dose aspirin (LDA) starting in early pregnancy on delaying preterm hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Design: Non-prespecified secondary analysis of a randomised masked trial of LDA. Setting: The study was conducted among women in the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) clusters, a prospective, population-based study in Kenya, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Pakistan, India (two sites-Belagavi and Nagpur) and Guatemala. Population: Nulliparous singleton pregnancies between 6+0 weeks and 13+6 weeks in six low-middle income countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Zambia) enrolled in the ASPIRIN Trial. Methods: We compared the incidence of HDP at delivery at three gestational age periods (<28, <34 and <37 weeks) between women who were randomised to aspirin or placebo. Women were included if they were randomised and had an outcome at or beyond 20 weeks (Modified Intent to Treat). Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome was pregnancies with HDP associated with preterm delivery (HDP@delivery) before <28, <34 and <37 weeks. Secondary outcomes included small for gestational age (SGA) <10th percentile, <5th percentile, and perinatal mortality. Results: Among the 11 976 pregnancies, LDA did not significantly lower HDP@delivery <28 weeks (relative risk [RR] 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02–1.52); however, it did lower HDP@delivery <34 weeks (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17–0.81) and HDP@delivery <37 weeks (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49–0.90). The overall rate of HDP did not differ between the two groups (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.94–1.25). Among those pregnancies who had HDP, SGA <10th percentile was reduced (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67–0.99), though SGA <5th percentile was not (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.64–1.09). Similarly, perinatal mortality among pregnancies with HDP occurred less frequently (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.92) in those receiving LDA. Pregnancies randomised to LDA delivered later with HDP compared with those receiving placebo (median gestational age 38.5 weeks vs. 37.9 weeks; p = 0.022). Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of a study of low-risk nulliparous singleton pregnancies, early administration of LDA resulted in lower rates of preterm HDP and delivery before 34 and 37 weeks but not in the overall rate of HDP. These results suggest that LDA works in part by delaying HDP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-25
Number of pages10
JournalBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Volume130
Issue numberS3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • aspirin
  • hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
  • low- and middle-income countries
  • nulliparous
  • preterm

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