Association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adults in South Asia: The CARRS study

Deksha Kapoor, Romaina Iqbal, Kalpana Singh, Lindsay M. Jaacks, Roopa Shivashankar, Vasudevan Sudha, R. M. Anjana, Masood Kadir, Viswanathan Mohan, Mohammed K. Ali, K. M.V. Narayan, Nikhil Tandon, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Anwar T. Merchant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Objectives: To investigate the association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among South Asians. Methods and Study Design: In a population based study conducted in 2010-11, we recruited 16,287 adults aged > 20 years residing in Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi. Diet was assessed using an interviewer-administered 26-item food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified three dietary patterns: Prudent, Indian, and Non-Vegetarian. We also computed a dietary diversity score. Multinomial and binary logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of cardio-metabolic disease risk factors across quartiles of dietary pattern and dietary diversity scores. Results: The adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was lower among participants in the highest versus lowest quartile of the Prudent Pattern (4.7% [3.8-5.6] versus 10.3% [8.5-12.0]), and the Indian Pattern (4.8% [3.7-5.9] versus 8.7% [6.7-10.6] in highest versus lowest quartile, respectively). Participants following the Indian Pattern also had lower adjusted prevalence of diagnosed hypertension (7.0% [5.4-8.5] versus 10.6% [8.6-12.5] in highest versus lowest quartile, respectively). Participants in the highest versus lowest quartile of the dietary diversity score had a lower adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes (4.1% [3.0-5.2] versus 8.2% [7.1-9.3]), diagnosed hypertension (6.7% [5.3-8.1] versus 10.3% [9.1-11.5]), and undiagnosed hypertension (14.2% [12.0-16.4] versus 18.5% [16.9-20.1]). Conclusions: High dietary diversity appears to be protective against cardio-metabolic disease risk factors in this urban cohort of South Asian adults. Further investigation to understand the underlying mechanism of this observation is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1332-1343
Number of pages12
JournalAsia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Principal component analysis
  • Prudent diet

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