Background: Autoimmunity increases with age and is often commonly evaluated in women of the reproductive age group. Prevalence of thyroid antibodies is common even in euthyroid pregnant women. We aim to compare the association of thyroid antibody status on the maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with hypothyroidism. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study on 718 cases in the Aga Khan University Hospital. Information was collected on pregnant women who have been diagnosed with hypothyroidism before conception or during their antenatal period. Laboratory data were recorded for thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also noted from medical file records. Data analysis was performed on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results: Overall, 146 out 718 cases were included for final analysis. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were positive in 66.4% and anti-thyroglobulin was positive in 52.1% cases, whereas 43.8% of cases had both antibodies positive. Pre-gestational diabetes was significantly associated with thyroid autoimmunity. There was a 73% less chance of gestational hypertension for thyroid autoimmune groups. Gestational diabetes and maternal (chronic) hypertension were found to have an independent effect on postpartum hemorrhage. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were found to have an independent risk for premature birth. Conclusion: Our study reports a 74.7% prevalence of positive thyroid antibodies in hypothyroid pregnant women, with higher association with pre-gestational diabetes. Gestational hypertension was least likely to occur in thyroid autoimmune groups. None of the outcomes were independently associated with worse outcomes.
- Thyroid antibodies
- Thyroid disorders