Binding site identification and role of permanent water molecule of PIM-3 kinase: A molecular dynamics study

Zaheer Ul-Haq, Sana Gul, Saman Usmani, Abdul Wadood, Waqasuddin Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The kinome is a protein kinase complement of the human genome, categorized as serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. These kinases catalyze phosphorylation reaction by using ATP as phosphoryl donor. Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) kinase encodes serine/threonine protein kinases that recognized as proto-oncogene, responsible for rapid growth of cancerous cells. It is implicated in cell survival and function via cell cycle progression and its metabolism. PIM-3, sub-member of PIM kinases is a proto-oncogene, its overexpression inhibits apoptosis, and results in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. PIM-3 is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop its specific inhibitors is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure by any experimental technique. In silico techniques generally facilitate scientist to explore hidden structural features in order to improve drug discovery. In the present study, homology modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation techniques were utilized to explore the structure and dynamics of PIM-3 kinase. Induction of water molecules during molecular docking simulation explored differences in the hinge region between PIM-1 and PIM-3 kinases that may be responsible for specificity. Furthermore, role of water molecules in the active site was also explored via radial distribution function (RDF) after a 10 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Generated RDF plots exhibited the importance of water for inhibitor binding through their bridging capability that links the ligand with binding site residues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-282
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • AutoDock
  • Homology modeling
  • MODELLER software
  • PIM 3 kinase
  • Ramachandran plot,


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