Brain magnetic resonance imaging and angiography findings in Ugandan children with sickle cell anemia; A cross sectional study

Richard Idro, Amelia Boehme, Michael Kawooya, Deogratias Munube, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Ezekiel Mupere, Angela Lignelli, Philip Kasirye, Nancy Green

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Abstract

Objective: Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are highly susceptible to cerebrovascular injury. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging and angiography (MRI-MRA) in Ugandan children with SCA to identify structural cerebrovascular abnormalities and examine their relationship to standardized clinical assessments.

Methods: A sub-sample (n=81) was selected from a cross-sectional study of children attending SCA clinic, including 52 (64.2%) with and 29 (35.8%) without clinically detected abnormalities. Clinical evaluation included assessment for prior stroke, cognitive testing and cerebral arterial transcranial doppler (TCD) flow velocity. MRI-MRA scans were interpreted by at least two neuroradiologists.

Results: Mean age was 6.5±2.7 years, with 39 (48.1%) female. Mean haemoglobin was 7.3±0.9 g/dl. Overall, 13 (16.0%) were malnourished. Infarcts and/or stenoses were detected in 55 (67.9%) participants, with stenoses primarily in the anterior circulation. Infarcts were seen in those with normal 17/29 (58.6%) or abnormal 34/52 (65.4%) clinical testing (p=0.181). Neither abnormal MRI nor MRA was associated with age, sex, haemoglobin, or malnutrition. Abnormal MRA was highly associated with infarcts (p

Conclusion: Over half of these SCA children had cerebrovascular infarcts and/or arterial stenoses. Cerebrovascular disease was frequently undetectable by clinical assessments. While rarely available in under-resourced settings, MRI-MRA brain imaging is an important tool for defining SCA cerebrovascular disease and for assessing impact of clinical intervention trials.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
JournalPaediatrics and Child Health, East Africa
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022

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