Cardiovascular risk factors among people living with HIV in rural Kenya: A clinic-based study

Kenneth Juma, Sylvia Mbugua, George Odinya, Mzee Ngunga, Roseanne Nyabera, David Zakus, James Jowi, Gerald Yonga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected adults in a rural sub-county hospital in Kenya. Methods: This was a descriptive survey of patient charts characterising cardiovascular risk among adult patients(> 18 years) at Ukwala sub-county hospital between June 2013 and January 2015. Post-stratification survey weights were applied to obtain prevalence levels. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for each variable related to cardiovascular risk factors were calculated using logistic regression models. Results: Overall, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 0.4%, 0.3% of patients had had a previous cardiovascular event (heart attack or stroke), 40.4% had pre-hypertension, while 10.4% had stage 1 and 2.9% stage 2 hypertension. Up to 14% of patients had elevated non-fasting total cholesterol levels. Factors associated with hypertension were male gender (AOR 1.59, p = 0.0001), being over 40 years of age (AOR l.78, p = 0.0001) and having an increased waist circumference (OR 2.56, p = 0.0014). Raised total cholesterol was more likely in those on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (AOR 2.2, p = 0.0042), azidothymidine (AZT) (AOR 2.5, p = 0.0004) and stavudine (D4T)-containing regimens (AOR 3.13,p =0.0002). Conclusions: An elevated prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and raised total cholesterol levels was found among people living with HIV. There was an association between raised total cholesterol and nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based ART regimens. Our findings provide further rationale for integrating routine cardiovascular risk-factor screening into HIV-care services.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-56
Number of pages5
JournalCardiovascular Journal of Africa
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Diabetes
  • Hypercholesterolaemia
  • Hypertension
  • People living with HIV
  • Sub-Saharan Africa


Dive into the research topics of 'Cardiovascular risk factors among people living with HIV in rural Kenya: A clinic-based study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this