Cardiovascular risk factors in school children from low middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan.

S. H. Badruddin, A. Molla, M. Khurshid, S. Vaz, S. Hassanali

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined on 239 school children aged 5-19 years belonging to lower middle class families. The mean TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG ranged from 3.70-4.37 mmol/L, 2.17-2.70 mmol/L, 0.94-1.14 mmol/L, 1.07-1.26 mmol/L respectively. In general, girls had higher TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels. There was no significant difference in the TG levels between boys and girls. Thirty-three percent of the girls and 22% of the boys had TC level > or = 4.4 mmol/L, the level at which dietary intervention is recommended for children. Fifty-three percent of the girls and 37% of the boys had TG levels > or = than the 90th percentile of the levels for children of similar age and sex in North America. The HDL-C levels were low with 37% of the girls and 44% of boys having values < or = the 10th percentile of levels for North American children. The mean daily intake of cholesterol ranged from 241 mg to 364 mg/day. Except for the 5-9 year olds, boys had a higher cholesterol intake than girls (P < 0.005). Twenty-two percent of the boys and 32% of the girls were overweight but weight status was significantly associated with elevated TC levels only in the boys (P < 0.05). Activity level was not significantly related to TC levels but girls who were active had significantly higher HDL-C levels than girls who were sedentary (P < 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-112
Number of pages7
JournalJPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1994


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