Changes in precipitation extremes over arid to semiarid and subhumid Punjab, Pakistan

Farhat Abbas, Ashfaq Ahmad, Mohammad Safeeq, Shafaqat Ali, Farhan Saleem, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Farhad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)


Asymmetrical monsoons during the recent past have resulted into spatially variable and devastating floods in South Asia. Analysis of historic precipitation extremes record may help in formulating mitigation strategies at local level. Eleven indices of precipitation extremes were evaluated using RClimDex and daily time series data for analysis period of 1981-2010 from five representative cities across Punjab province of Pakistan. The indices include consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, number of days above daily average precipitation, number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm, number of days with precipitation ≥20 mm, very wet days, extremely wet days, simple daily intensity index, maximum 1-day precipitation quantity, maximum 5 consecutive day precipitation quantity, and annual total wet-day precipitation. Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope extremes were used to detect trends in indices. Droughts and excessive precipitation were dictated by elevation from mean sea level with prolonged dry spells in southern Punjab and vice versa confirming spatial trends for precipitation extremes. However, no temporal trend was observed for any of the indices. Summer in the region is the wettest season depicting contribution of monsoons during June through August toward devastating floods in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)671-680
Number of pages10
JournalTheoretical and Applied Climatology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes


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