Back ground and Objective: Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is frequently used as one of the most frequent life-supportive technology in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs). Very little data is available from Asian countries like Pakistan regarding use of MV in PICUs. Our objective was to assess the frequency, indications and immediate-outcomes in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients in tertiary-care center of developing country. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of critically ill pediatric patients admitted in PICU of Aga Khan University Hospital, who required MV for more than 24-hour over two-year period. Results: A total of 605 patients were admitted to PICU, 307 (50.7%) patients required MV support for >24hr. The median age was 3 years (IQR 6 month to 6 yr 2 months), and male was 59.6% (183/307). Common indications for MV was neurological illness 35.8%, followed by respiratory diseases in 20.8% patients and cardiac diseases in 13%; and 30.3 % patients were ventilated for other reasons. The median length of MV was 2.1 days. 9.4% developed complications and atelectasis (4.6%) was the most common. The mortality rate of children mechanically ventilated was 30.3% as compared to the overall mortality rate of in PICU was 16.3%. The long duration (> 10 days) and cardiogenic shock were identified as independent risk factor associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: About half of PICU admission required mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. The neurological illness was the most common reason for ventilation. The low incidence of complication rate and relatively high mortality in cardiac cases and long duration of mechanical ventilation were noted in our cohort.
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