Clinical characteristics and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis in Pakistani adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

A. Jabbar, K. Farooqui, A. Habib, N. Islam, N. Haque, J. Akhter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Pakistani adult population with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all adult patients admitted with a diagnosis of DKA and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and followed their clinical course and outcome. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review or telephone contact where necessary. Results: Fifty-seven patients fulfilled criteria for inclusion in the study. Their mean age was 48 ± 7 years. The mean body mass index was 25.5 ± 6.2 kg/m2. Forty-nine had a prior history of Type 2 DM but DKA was the initial presentation in 14%. Nine were on no treatment, 40 were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and eight were on insulin. A history of prior DKA was noted in eight patients. Infections were the most common precipitating factor (63%). There were 12 deaths. Follow-up after a period ranging between 12 and 43 months revealed that 30/ 45 patients remained on OHA without recurrence of DKA. Conclusion: This report highlights the need for the growing recognition of DKA occurring in adults with Type 2 DM in the South Asian population. Mortality rates are unacceptably high but the majority of survivors remain insulin independent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)920-923
Number of pages4
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004


  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Pakistan
  • Type 2 diabetes


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