Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: Experience at a Major Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan

Sonia Yaqub, Amna Hamid, Marwah Saeed, Safia Awan, Aisha Farooque, Hameed Ullah Tareen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Limited data exist on acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its risk factors, and the outcomes from lower and middle-income countries. We determined the epidemiology of AKI and its outcomes in a retrospective observational study at a tertiary care center in Karachi, Pakistan, from October to December 2020. Demographic data, presenting clinical symptoms, laboratory results, and patient outcomes were collected from the medical records. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Of 301 COVID-19 patients, AKI developed in 188 (62.5%). The peak stages of AKI were Stage 1 in 57%, Stage 2 in 14.9%, and Stage 3 in 27.7%. Of these, 15 (8%) required kidney replacement therapy (KRT). Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (63.8% vs. 34.5%), and those needing vasopressors (31.9% vs. 5.3%) or mechanical ventilation (25% vs. 2.7%) had a higher risk of AKI. Independent predictors of AKI were elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (Cr) at presentation, mechanical ventilation, and the use of anticoagulants. AKI, the presence of proteinuria, elevated serum Cr at presentation, use of vasopressors, and a need for KRT were significantly associated with in-hospital death, and the likelihood of mortality increased with advanced stages of AKI. Compared with other countries, AKI occurred more frequently among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in this Pakistani cohort and was associated with 7.7-fold higher odds of in-hospital death. Patients with severe AKI had a greater likelihood of mortality than those in earlier stages or without AKI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)784-794
Number of pages11
JournalSaudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia.
Volume33
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

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