Background: An outbreak of Candida auris began globally in 2014 including Pakistan and since then it has emerged as a nosocomial multi-drug resistant pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients, from a single center in Pakistan, in whom C. auris was isolated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 92 patients; ≥16 years with at least one culture positive for C. auris, at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan from Sept 2014-Mar 2017.Demographics, clinical history, management and outcome were studied. A logistic regression model was used to identify the risk factors for mortality. Results: We identified 92 patients with C. auris (193 isolates), of whom 52.2% were males. Mean age was 54.14 ± 20.4 years. Positive cultures were obtained after a median hospital stay of 14 days. Most patients had a history of surgery (57.6%), antibiotic use (95.6%), ICU stay (44.6%), indwelling lines (88.04%) and isolation of another multi-resistant organism (52.2%).Most patients were symptomatic (70.7%). Amongst these, 38 had candidemia while 27 had non-candidemia infections. Sites of infection included central lines (35), urinary tract (19), peritonitis (4), nosocomial ventriculitis (1), empyema (1), fungal keratitis (1) otitis externa (1) and surgical site (1). Fluconazole resistance was 100% while 28.5 and 7.9% were Voriconazole and Amphotericin resistant respectively. Overall crude mortality was 42.4% while 14-day mortality was 31.5%. Both infected and colonized cases shared similar mortality (46.2% vs 33.3%; p-value = 0.25). Among infected cases mortality was high in candidemia compared to non-candidemia (60.5% vs 25.9%) in which deaths related to C. auris were 34.2% vs 22.2% respectively. On multivariate analysis candidemia (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.09–16.49; p-value = 0.037) was associated with greater mortality with source control being the only protective factor for mortality (AOR 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05–0.92; p-value0.038] while ICU stay, rapidity of blood culture clearance, DM, malignancy and MDR co-infection had no impact. Conclusion: Patients with C.auris from a single center in Pakistan have a wide clinical spectrum with line associated infection being the predominant site of infection. Candidemia leads to high mortality while source control improves outcome.
- Candida auris
- Urinary tract infection