7 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of review: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Recent advances aimed at improving outcomes and reducing CAP disease burden are summarized. Recent findings: Emerging data suggests that newer CAP risk stratification indices based on disease severity hold promise in predicting intensive care need. Additional evidence supports a role of procalcitonin and pro-adrenomedullin as biomarkers of disease severity and for guiding antimicrobial therapy. New diagnostic tools have greatly contributed to early diagnosis and better-targeted therapy. There is increasing recognition of the role of coinfections in CAP. In patients with severe disease, therefore, current guidelines advise against monotherapy. Although inclusion of coverage for atypical pathogens in nonsevere CAP has been challenged, evidence suggests that such coverage is beneficial in patients with severe disease. Use of steroids as adjunctive therapy for CAP, however, is associated with complications and prolonged hospitalization. Updated prevention strategies include approval of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for adults at risk. Summary: Despite these developments research aimed at further reducing CAP-related morbidity and mortality is required. Increasing global life expectancy is likely to expand the at-risk population; therefore, research directed at CAP prevention in view of changing demography is essential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-208
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2013


  • Aetiology
  • Antimicrobial therapy
  • Biomarkers
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Diagnosis
  • Severity assessment tools
  • Severity index


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