This study aimed at comparing psychosocial factors in inpatients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia in China. A sample of 197 first-episode schizophrenia inpatients was compared with 392 chronic schizophrenics using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Social Support Rating Scale and Childhood Traumatic Questionnaire. Our findings showed that chronic schizophrenic patients had significant higher negative symptoms but lower on positive symptoms. They were also less likely to receive social support. Our results provide understanding on the existing differences between first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Therefore, comprehensive nursing interventions are needed to facilitate social support and medication adherence in order to prevent relapses.