Background: Early identification of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is particularly challenging in low- middle-income countries where diagnostic capabilities are limited, and risk factors for CAPA have not been identified. It is also essential to recognise CAPA patients who are likely to have a poorer outcome to decide on aggressive management approaches. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors and outcomes for CAPA among admitted moderate to critical COVID-19 patients at our centre in Pakistan. Methods: An unmatched case–control study with ratio of 1:2 was conducted on hospitalised adult patients with COVID-19 from March 2020–July 2021. Cases were defined according to European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Controls were defined as patients hospitalised with moderate, severe or critical COVID-19 without CAPA. Results: A total of 100 CAPA cases (27 probable CAPA; 73 possible CAPA) were compared with 237 controls. Critical disease at presentation (aOR 5.04; 95% CI 2.18–11.63), age ≥ 60 years (aOR 2.00; 95% CI 1.20–3.35) and underlying co-morbid of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (aOR 3.78; 95% CI 1.57–9.08) were identified as risk factors for CAPA. Patients with CAPA had a significantly greater proportion of complications and longer length of hospital stay (p-value <.001). Mortality was higher in patients with CAPA (48%) as compared to those without CAPA (13.5%) [OR = 6.36(95% CI 3.6–11)]. Conclusions: CAPA was significantly associated with advanced age, CKD and critical illness at presentation, along with a greater frequency of complications and higher mortality.
- COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis
- risk factors