Consensus statements for influenza awareness, prevention, and vaccination in Pakistan

Bushra Jamil, Raeefuddin Ahmed, Uzma Bashir, Shobha Luxmi, Samreen Kulsoom, Saadia Ashraf, Muhammad H. Hamid, Fawad Farooq, Ainan Arshad, Altaf Hussain, Tabrez Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Influenza is a serious underestimated viral infection in Pakistan and influenza vaccination and vaccination awareness are low. The current work aimed to develop consensus on influenza epidemiology, prevention, vaccination, and awareness in Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature search was conducted to develop recommendations on influenza vaccines in Pakistan. Experts' feedback was incorporated using the modified Delphi method. A three-step process was used, with 18 experts from different specialties from Pakistan who participated in voting rounds to achieve a minimum 75% agreement level. RESULTS: Pakistan has a low-immunization-rate and is susceptible to serious influenza outbreaks and influenza-related complications. Influenza circulates year-round in Pakistan but peaks during January and February. The subtype A/H1N1 is predominant. The experts urged vaccination in all individuals ≥ 6 months of age and with no contraindications. They highlighted special considerations for those with comorbidities and specific conditions. The experts agreed that the inactivated influenza vaccine is safe and efficient in pregnant women, immunocompromised, and comorbid respiratory and cardiovascular patients. Finally, the experts recommended conducting promotional and educational programs to raise awareness on influenza and vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first regional consensus on influenza and influenza vaccination in Pakistan with experts' recommendations to increase influenza vaccination and decrease influenza cases and its associated detrimental effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)609-617
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infection in Developing Countries
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2024


  • consensus
  • influenza
  • Pakistan
  • vaccination


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