Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining. Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status.
- Esophageal carcinoma (E-ca)
- Risk factor. Milk