Cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing an integrated neonatal care kit to reduce neonatal infection in rural Pakistan

Fiona Muttalib, Karen Chung, Lisa Grace Pell, Shabina Ariff, Sajid Soofi, Shaun K. Morris, Beate Sander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of distribution of the integrated neonatal care kit (iNCK) by community health workers from the healthcare payer perspective in Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. Setting Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. Participants N/A. Intervention Cost-utility analysis using a Markov model based on cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT: NCT 02130856) data and a literature review. We compared distribution of the iNCK to pregnant mothers to local standard of care and followed infants over a lifetime horizon. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was incremental net monetary benefit (INMB, at a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$15.50), discounted at 3%. Secondary outcomes were life years, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs. Results At a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$15.50, distribution of the iNCK resulted in lower expected DALYs (28.7 vs 29.6 years) at lower expected cost (US$52.50 vs 55.20), translating to an INMB of US$10.22 per iNCK distributed. These results were sensitive to the baseline risk of infection, cost of the iNCK and the estimated effect of the iNCK on the relative risk of infection. At relative risks of infection below 0.79 and iNCK costs below US$25.90, the iNCK remained cost-effective compared with current local standard of care. Conclusion The distribution of the iNCK dominated the current local standard of care (ie, the iNCK is less costly and more effective than current care standards). Most of the cost-effectiveness of the iNCK was attributable to a reduction in neonatal infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere047793
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2022


  • community child health
  • health economics
  • neonatology


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