Cost of illness due to typhoid fever in five Asian countries

Christine Poulos, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, John F. Stewart, John Clemens, Soyeon Guh, Magdarina Agtini, Dang Duc Anh, Dong Baiqing, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Dipika Sur, Dale Whittington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To generate community-based estimates of the public (paid by the government) and private (paid by households) costs of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and Hue, Vietnam. Methods To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90days after onset of illness. Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method. Results The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non-hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. Where costs were highest (Hechi, North Jakarta and Karachi), the bulk of the costs of hospitalized cases was borne by families, comprising up to 15% of annual household income. Conclusion Although these estimates may understate true costs due to the fact that higher quality treatment may have been provided earlier-than-usual, this multi-country community-based study contributes to evidence on the public and private costs of typhoid fever in developing countries. These cost estimates were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid vaccines and will help policymakers respond to World Health Organization's updated typhoid fever immunization recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-323
Number of pages10
JournalTropical Medicine and International Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • China
  • Cost of illness
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Pakistan
  • Survey
  • Typhoid fever
  • Vietnam


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