Covid-19 pandemic: From origins to outcomes. A comprehensive review of viral pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and management

Rohan Kumar Ochani, Ameema Asad, Farah Yasmin, Shehryar Shaikh, Hiba Khalid, Simran Batra, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Rajkumar Ochani, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Arjan Kumar, Salim Surani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen for the CO-VID-19, first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and by March 2020, it was declared a pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened healthcare sys-tems in most countries and has led to massive economic losses. SARS-CoV-2 transmission typically occurs by respiratory droplets. The average incubation period is 6.4 days and presenting symptoms typically include fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia or fatigue. While the majority of patients tend to have a mild illness, a minor-ity of patients develop severe hypoxia requiring hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. Management is mostly supportive. However, several direct anti-viral agents, and immunomodulatory therapy with steroids and various cytokine blockers seem promising in early results. However, an effective vaccine has been estab-lished, which will help curb the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-36
Number of pages17
JournalInfezioni in Medicina
Volume29
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Bvnbmb

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