Cross-sectional study identifying forms of tobacco used by shisha smokers in Pakistan

Sameer-ur-Rehman, Mohammed Ali Sadiq, Maria Adnan Parekh, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Philippe M. Frossard, Javaid Ahmed Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To estimate the frequency of different forms of tobacco intake such as smoker's tobacco, chewable tobacco and snuff tobacco among shisha smoker's and to study the patterns and predictors of shisha smoking affecting youth from different cities of Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including youth from four cities. Participants were asked to fill out a data collection tool at shisha cafes, shopping malls and restaurants. Data was analyzed using SPSSv.18. Results: A total of 406 participants, 296 (73%) males and 110 (27%) females were included in the study. There were 163 (40%) cigarette smokers; 65(16%) chewed tobacco and 33 (8%) snuffed it.The median age at initiation of Shisha smoking was 20 years. 280 (69%) considered Shisha smoking to be less deleterious to health than cigarettes. Respiratory disease was the most commonly cited health effect reported. Most 248 (61%) of the participants were infrequent shisha smokers. Conclusion: There is high frequency of tobacco usage in the form of cigarettes, chewable tobacco and snuff tobacco among shisha smokers of Pakistan. The highest frequency is for cigarette smoking. The rise in Shisha smoking as a trendy social habit appears to be occurring despite emerging scientific evidence of its potential health risks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-195
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cigarette smoking
  • Pakistan
  • Shisha
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco


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