Deep learning applications in neuro-oncology

Adnan A. Khan, Hamza Ibad, Kaleem Sohail Ahmed, Zahra Hoodbhoy, Shahzad M. Shamim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Deep learning (DL) is a relatively newer subdomain of machine learning (ML) with incredible potential for certain applications in the medical field. Given recent advances in its use in neuro-oncology, its role in diagnosing, prognosticating, and managing the care of cancer patients has been the subject of many research studies. the gamut of studies has shown that the landscape of algorithmic methods is constantly improving with each iteration from its inception. With the increase in the availability of high-quality data, more training sets will allow for higher fidelity models. However, logistical and ethical concerns over a prospective trial comparing prognostic abilities of DL and physicians severely limit the ability of this technology to be widely adopted. One of the medical tenets is judgment, a facet of medical decision making in DL that is often missing because of its inherent nature as a “black box.” A natural distrust for newer technology, combined with a lack of autonomy that is normally expected in our current medical practices, is just one of several important limitations in implementation. In our review, we will first define and outline the different types of artificial intelligence (AI) as well as the role of AI in the current advances of clinical medicine. We briefly highlight several of the salient studies using different methods of DL in the realm of neuroradiology and summarize the key findings and challenges faced when using this nascent technology, particularly ethical challenges that could be faced by users of DL.

Original languageEnglish
Article number435
JournalSurgical Neurology International
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep learning
  • Glioma prognostication
  • Machine learning
  • Neuro-oncology


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