The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA PCR results of 94 dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper and corresponding venous blood in EDTA obtained from infants born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers were compared. In addition, the results of HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS and the HIV-1 RNA PCR from plasma of 70 paired samples were compared. A 100% specificity and a 95% sensitivity for HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS compared with results for venous blood were observed for the 94 paired samples. The results of the DBS HIV-1 DNA PCR and HIV-1 RNA PCR of 70 corresponding plasma samples correlated perfectly (100%). The DBS HIV-1 DNA PCR method proved reliable for HIV-1 detection.