Determination of reference intervals for common chemistry and immunoassay tests for Kenyan adults based on an internationally harmonized protocol and up-to-date statistical methods

Geoffrey Omuse, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Daniel Maina, Mariza Hoffman, Elizabeth Kagotho, Alice Kanyua, Jane Mwangi, Caroline Wambua, Angela Amayo, Peter Ojwang, Zul Premji, Rajiv Erasmus

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20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Due to a lack of reliable reference intervals (RIs) for Kenya, we set out to determine RIs for 40 common chemistry and immunoassay tests as part of the IFCC global RI project. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 18-65 years were recruited according to a harmonized protocol and samples analyzed using Beckman-Coulter analyzers. Value assigned serum panels were measured to standardize chemistry results. The need for partitioning reference values by sex and age was based on between-subgroup differences expressed as standard deviation ratio (SDR) or bias in lower or upper limits (LLs and ULs) of the RI. RIs were derived using a parametric method with/without latent abnormal value exclusion (LAVE). Results Sex-specific RIs were required for uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubin (TBil), total cholesterol (TC), ALT, AST, CK, GGT, transferrin, transferrin saturation (TfSat) and immunoglobulin-M. Age-specific RIs were required for glucose and triglyceride for both sexes, and for urea, magnesium, TC, HDL-cholesterol ratio, ALP, and ferritin for females. LAVE was effective in optimizing RIs for AST, ALT, GGT iron-markers and CRP by reducing influence of latent anemia and metabolic diseases. Thyroid profile RIs were derived after excluding volunteers with anti-thyroid antibodies. Kenyan RIs were comparable to those of other countries participating in the global study with a few exceptions such as higher ULs for TBil and CRP. Conclusions Kenyan RIs for major analytes were established using harmonized protocol from welldefined reference individuals. Standardized RIs for chemistry analytes can be shared across sub-Saharan African laboratories with similar ethnic and life-style profile.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0235234
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume15
Issue number7 July
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

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