Background/Aim: Rome III criteria has modified the description of functional dyspepsia (FD) and divided this into subgroups. However, the discriminative value of Rome III questionnaire-based diagnosis of FD is yet to be determined. Objectives: To evaluate the Rome III questionnaire for the diagnosis of FD and whether it can discriminate between postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) in patients with dyspeptic symptoms. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients, who were not on proton pump inhibitors (PPI), were asked to participate. Patients who have previously established acid peptic disease or predominantly reflux symptoms or having alarm symptoms such as weight loss and hematemesis were excluded. Rome III questionnaire for FD was used to identify the patients as having FD and divide into its subgroups; PDS or EPS. Gastro-duodenal biopsies, liver function tests and ultrasound were done to establish the diagnosis of FD. Results: Out of 272 patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms without alarm features, who were enrolled in the study, a total of 191 (70%) fulfilled the criteria of FD based upon Rome III questionnaire. EPS subgroup was found in 109 (57%), PDS in 17 (9%) patients, overlap between EPS and PDS was present in 56 (29%) patients. Nine (5%) patients remained indeterminate. Diagnosis of FD was established in 136/191 (71%) patients only. Gastritis was present in 116 patients (85%), Duodenitis in 44 (32%) and Helicobacter pylori infection in 70 (51%) patients. Among 55 patients (29%) who had organic diseases, EPS was seen in 35 (64%), PDS in 5 (9%) and overlap in 15 (27%) patients. Underlying organic causes were gastric or duodenal ulcers in 14 patients, Barrett esophagus in five, chronic liver disease in seven, gall stones in five, Giardiasis and celiac disease in three each. Gastric carcinoma, Crohns disease and gastric polyps were seen in one patient each. Conclusion: This study indicates that 30% of patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for FD actually had organic disease. Almost one-third of patients with functioanl dyspepsia did not qualify for one of the two subgroups of FD of Rome III. There is also a need to further define the Rome III-based subgroups of FD for research purpose.
- Functional dyspepsia
- Rome III criteria
- epigastric pain syndrome
- postprandial distress syndrome