Displacement of Hospital-Acquired, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones by Heterogeneous Community Strains in Kenya over a 13-Year Period

Justin Nyasinga, Zubair Munshi, Collins Kigen, Andrew Nyerere, Lillian Musila, Andrew Whitelaw, Wilma Ziebuhr, Gunturu Revathi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We determined antibiotic susceptibility and employed Oxford Nanopore whole-genome sequencing to explore strain diversity, resistance, and virulence gene carriage among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from different infection sites and timepoints in a tertiary Kenyan hospital. Ninety-six nonduplicate clinical isolates recovered between 2010 and 2023, identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility on the VITEK ID/AST platform, were sequenced. Molecular typing, antibiotic resistance, and virulence determinant screening were performed using the relevant bioinformatics tools. The strains, alongside those from previous studies, were stratified into two periods covering 2010–2017 and 2018–2023 and comparisons were made. Mirroring phenotypic profiles, aac(6′)-aph(2″) [aminoglycosides]; gyrA (S84L) and grlA (S80Y) [fluoroquinolones]; dfrG [anti-folates]; and tet(K) [tetracycline] resistance determinants dominated the collection. While the proportion of ST239/241-t037-SCCmec III among MRSA reduced from 37.7% to 0% over the investigated period, ST4803-t1476-SCCmec IV and ST152-t355-SCCmec IV were pre-eminent. The prevalence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) genes was 38% (33/87) and 6.8% (6/87), respectively. We observed the displacement of HA-MRSA ST239/241-t037-SCCmec III with the emergence of ST152-t355-SCCmec IV and a greater clonal heterogeneity. The occurrence of PVL+/ACME+ CA-MRSA in recent years warrants further investigations into their role in the CA-MRSA virulence landscape, in a setting of high PVL prevalence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1171
JournalMicroorganisms
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Keywords

  • AMR
  • antibiotic resistance
  • epidemiology
  • genomic surveillance
  • Kenya
  • MRSA
  • Staphylococcus aureus

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