Disseminated histoplasmosis

Akshat Banga, Riecha Joshi, Rahul Kashyap, Reena Shah, Salim Surani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, a facultative intracellular parasite of the system. It is predominantly found in North America, primarily Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Transmitted by inhalation of airborne fungal conidia, H. capsulatum can cause mild to severe respiratory illness. Dissemination of histoplasmosis occurs in immunocompromised patients following initial infection, reinfection, or reactivation of the latent foci. Histoplasma initially disseminates to organs rich in reticuloendothelial cells, but it can infect any organ/organ system, including central nervous system (CNS), gastrointestinal tract (GIT), skin, and adrenal glands, etc. Disseminated histoplasmosis is considered one of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining infections, and it usually occurs in HIV-infected individuals with a CD4 count<200/mm3.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHistoplasmosis
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Diagnosis to Treatment
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages37
ISBN (Electronic)9798891132283
ISBN (Print)9798891131293
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2023


  • AIDS
  • CNS histoplasmosis
  • Disseminated histoplasmosis
  • GI histoplasmosis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Immunocompromised
  • TNF-alpha


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