Do-It-Yourself and Commercial Automated Insulin Delivery Systems in Type 1 Diabetes: An Uncertain Area for Canadian Health-care Providers

Amy E. Morrison, Peter A. Senior, Tania Bubela, Kate Farnsworth, Holly O. Witteman, Anna Lam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In the past century, since the discovery of insulin, methods of insulin delivery and glucose monitoring have advanced technologically. In particular, the introduction of insulin pumps, providing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have been revolutionary for people living with type 1 diabetes. In this review, we have focussed on automated insulin delivery (AID) systems and discuss the implications of both approved and off-label options for the user and health-care providers. By pairing insulin pumps with CGM, AID systems facilitate automated adjustment in insulin delivery based on CGM readings. A subset of these have been developed commercially and were granted regulatory approval. In contrast, unregulated do-it-yourself AID systems, designed and set up by people living with type 1 diabetes and their families, have advanced rapidly and are gaining popularity worldwide. These patient-driven technologies have demonstrated impressive user self-reported improvements in glycemic control and quality of life, but have not been evaluated in any formal randomized controlled trials or by regulators. This presents challenging uncertainty for health-care providers, in addition to ethical and legal implications in supporting people with diabetes who wish to use these technologies. The current knowledge, opinions and practices relating to the use of AID systems across Canada are unknown. Gathering this information will highlight current practice and areas of knowledge gaps and concern and will assist in focussed education. This understanding is crucial to ensure people with type 1 diabetes using these systems have access to optimal, consistent and safe patient-centred care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)863-870
Number of pages8
JournalCanadian Journal of Diabetes
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • artificial pancreas system
  • automated insulin delivery
  • closed loop
  • DIY
  • insulin pump therapy
  • type 1 diabetes


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