The advent of newer and better tolerated antiretroviral therapy has progressively shortened the life expectancy gap between people living with HIV (PWH) and the general population. However, in this aging cohort, cardiovascular disease is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in cardiac care. Therefore, it is critical to assess and treat all cardiovascular disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, early and aggressively in PWH. Data are not as robust regarding the pathogenesis and management of dyslipidemia in PWH, with most evidence being extrapolated from the general uninfected population. In this review the authors describe the current understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV and antiretroviral therapy–induced dyslipidemia, and the approach to risk assessment and management, given that drug-drug interactions remain an important consideration in this population.