BACKGROUND. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-DT vaccine elicits antibody that may inhibit prostate cancers indirectly by blocking GnRH induced gonadotropin release, and consequent androgen synthesis, and directly by immune effector and antiproliferative mechanisms. A pilot study was performed to determine how to best combine GnRH-DT vaccine with potentially immunosuppressive chemotherapy. METHODS. Patients with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer were randomized into either a concurrent cohort, in which they received docetaxel on day 1 of weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10 and GnRH-DT vaccine on day 2 of weeks 1, 3, and 7 or a sequential cohort, in which they received GnRH-DT vaccine on weeks 1, 3, and 7 before beginning docetaxel on week 10. GnRH-DT vaccine was administered intramuscularly. Docetaxel was infused intravenously after premedication with high-dose dexamethasone, and infusions repeated every 3 weeks in the absence of toxicity or progressive cancer. RESULTS. GnRH-DT vaccine and docetaxel were well tolerated without evidence of significant local or systemic toxicities. Anti-GnRH antibody was elicited in six of six treated concurrently and five of six treated sequentially. The kinetics of antibody induction and the titers of antibody achieved in both treatment cohorts were similar. Anti-GnRH antibody persisted for up to 28 weeks in a patient maintained on docetaxel. CONCLUSION. The administration of docetaxel with high-dose dexamethasone does not inhibit the ability of patients with advanced prostate cancer to be immunized with GnRH-DT vaccine.