Effect of frequency of parent to child maltreatment on symptoms of anxiety disorder in Pakistani adolescents: A community based cohort study

Maryam Pyar Ali Lakhdir, Aneela Pasha, Asad Allana, Asif Khaliq, Salima Farooq, Naureen Akber Ali, Apsara Ali Nathwani, Syed Iqbal Azam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the association between Parent to Child Maltreatment and the occurrence of anxiety disorder symptoms among Pakistani adolescents under 18 years. Method: A prospective study was conducted to examine the effect of frequency of Parent to child maltreatment (PTC) on the occurrence of anxiety disorders in a community setting. A sample of 800 adolescents who reported none to rare, occasional, and frequent were followed for the occurrence of anxiety disorder symptoms over two years. PTC was evaluated using ICAST-C (International child abuse screening tool). Anxiety disorder symptoms were evaluated using the SCARED (Screen for children anxiety-related disorders) tool. Risk ratios were estimated using Cox Proportional Algorithm. Results: The risk of occurrence of anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescents who have exposure to frequent PTC is 3.8 times (2.9, 4.9) as compared to those with none to rare exposure to PTC. Among adolescents suffering frequent PTC whose, mothers also reported a history of domestic violence, the risk of anxiety disorder symptoms is 3 times (2.2, 4.1) higher. Female gender (RR 1.5; 1.2–1.9), stressful home environment (RR 1.4; 1.1–1.8), and parental substance abuse (RR 1.6; 1.2–2.0) are significant predictors of anxiety disorder symptoms. Conclusion: Frequent PTC is significantly associated with the occurrence of anxiety disorder symptoms among Pakistani adolescents. Given these findings, there is a dire need to develop specific interventions to address anxiety disorder symptoms among adolescents and to develop programs to prevent parent to child maltreatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105872
JournalChild Abuse and Neglect
Volume133
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Anxiety
  • Cohort
  • Maltreatment
  • Pakistan

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