Effectiveness of haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in young children in Pakistan

Asif Raza Khowaja, Syed Mohiuddin, Adam L. Cohen, Waseem Mirza, Naila Nadeem, Talha Zuberi, Basit Salam, Fatima Mubarak, Bano Rizvi, Yousuf Husen, Khatidja Pardhan, Khalid Mehmood A. Khan, Syed Jamal Raza, Hassan Khalid Zuberi, Sultan Mustafa, Salma H. Sheikh, Akbar Nizamani, Heermani Lohana, Kim Mulholland, Elizabeth ZellRana Hajjeh, Altaf Bosan, Anita K.M. Zaidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in preventing severe pneumonia in Asian children has been questioned, and many large Asian countries yet to introduce Hib conjugate vaccine in immunization programs. The primary objective of this study was to assess Hib conjugate vaccine effectiveness (VE) on radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children born after introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine in Pakistan. Study design: A matched case-control study enrolled cases of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in several hospitals serving low-income populations during 2009-2011. Cases were matched by age and season with 3 hospital and 5 neighborhood controls. Pneumonia was diagnosed using standardized World Health Organization criteria for chest radiograph interpretation. Matched OR were estimated for VE. Results: A total of 1027 children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia were enrolled; 975 cases, 2925 hospital controls, and 4875 neighborhood controls were analyzed. The coverage for 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib conjugate vaccine was 13.7%, 18%, and 22.7% in cases, hospital controls and neighborhood controls, respectively. Estimated Hib VE for radiologically- confirmed pneumonia was 62% with 3 doses of vaccine using hospital controls and 70% using neighborhood controls. Conclusions: Hib conjugate vaccine prevented a significant fraction of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Maximizing impact on child survival needs improved immunization coverage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S79-S85.e1
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Issue number1 SUPPL
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013


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