Effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine against culture-confirmed typhoid in a peri-urban setting in Karachi: A case-control study

Rabab Batool, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sonia Qureshi, Miqdad Ali, Tahira Sadaf, Junaid Mehmood, Per Ashorn, Farah Naz Qamar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi, is a cause of high morbidity and mortality among children in South Asia. Rising antimicrobial resistance presents an additional challenge. Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines (TCV) are recommended by the World Health Organization for use among people 6 months to 45 years old living in endemic settings. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of TCV against culture-confirmed S. Typhi in Lyari Town, Karachi, Pakistan. This peri-urban town was one of the worst affected by the outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid that started in November 2016. Methods: A matched case-control study was conducted following a mass immunization campaign with TCV at three key hospitals in Lyari Town Karachi, Pakistan. Children aged 6 months to 15 years presenting with culture-confirmed S. Typhi were enrolled as cases. For each case, at least 1 age-matched hospital control and two age-matched community controls were enrolled. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results: Of 82 typhoid fever patients enrolled from August 2019 through December 2019, 8 (9·8%) had received vaccine for typhoid. Of the 164 community controls and 82 hospital controls enrolled, 38 (23·2%) community controls and 27 (32·9%) hospital controls were vaccinated for typhoid. The age and sex-adjusted vaccine effectiveness was found to be 72% (95% CI: 34% − 88%). The consumption of meals prepared outside home more than once per month (adjusted odds ratio: 3·72, 95% CI: 1·55- 8·94; p-value: 0·003) was associated with the development of culture-confirmed typhoid. Conclusion: A single dose of TCV is effective against culture confirmed typhoid among children aged 6 months to 15 years old in an XDR typhoid outbreak setting of a peri-urban community in Karachi, Pakistan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5858-5865
Number of pages8
Issue number40
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sept 2021


  • Case-control
  • Effectiveness
  • TCV
  • Typhoid conjugate vaccine
  • Vaccine effectiveness


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