Multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a grave cause of global public health concern due to its high mortality and limited treatment options. We conducted this systemic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid, which have been added to the WHO-recommended regimen for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until December 1st, 2021, for eligible studies assessing the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis. Binary outcomes were pooled using a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model and arcsine transformation and reported on a log scale with a 95% confidence interval (CIs). Twenty-one studies were shortlisted in which bedaquiline, delamanid, and a combination of both were administered in 2477, 937, and 169 patients. Pooled culture conversion at 6 months was 0.801 (p < 0.001), 0.849 (p = 0.059) for bedaquiline and delamanid, respectively, and 0.823 (p = 0.017), concomitantly. In the bedaquiline cohort, the pooled proportion of all-cause mortality at 6 months was reported as 0.074 (p < 0.001), 0.031 (p = 0.372) in the delamanid cohort, and 0.172 in the combined cohort. The incidence of adverse events in the bedaquiline cohort ranged from 11.1% to 95.2%, from 13.2% to 86.2% in the delamanid cohort, and 92.5% in a study in the combined cohort. The incidence of QTC prolongation reported in each cohort is as follows: bedaquiline 0.163 (p < 0.001), delamanid 0.344 (p = 0.272) and combined 0.340 (p < 0.001). Our review establishes the efficacy of delamanid, bedaquiline, and their combined use in treating drug-resistant tuberculosis with reasonable rates of culture conversion, low mortality rates, and safety of co-administration, as seen with their effect on the QTc interval.
- Extensively drug-resistant
- Multidrug resistance