Epidemiology of stone disease in Pakistan

Amanullah Memon, Farhat Abbas, M. Hammad Ather, Syed Raziuddin Biyabani, Khurram Mutahir Siddiqui, Jamsheer J. Talati, Wajahat Aziz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Urinary tract stones are a common af fl iction across river, desert, and mountainous regions of Pakistan. A third of the stones have a single component. The commonest stone is composed of oxalate, with phosphate and uric acid as additional components. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is more abundantly present than the dihydrate. Phosphate stones comprise only about 7 % of all stones, and struvite is uncommon. Populations in the north have a greater proportion of pure and predominantly oxalate stones. Rural areas in the south have phosphate stones. The government of British India documented the frequent occurrence of stone in this region from the nineteenth century. The commonest stone was vesical. Noted stone transitions include (1) the marked increase in the discovery of renal stones, (2) the disappearance (except in pockets) of the idiopathic adult vesical stone, and (3) the decrease in children in the proportions of stones that are vesical. Late presentation for treatment and consequent renal destruction are still frequent.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUrolithiasis
Subtitle of host publicationBasic Science and Clinical Practice
PublisherSpringer-Verlag London Ltd
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9781447143871
ISBN (Print)9781447143833
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


  • Age-related stone formation
  • Calcium oxalate stones
  • Calcium phosphate stones
  • Cystine stones
  • Geographical variation
  • Incidence
  • Infection stones
  • Oxalates
  • Pediatric stones
  • Practice patterns
  • Prevalence
  • Recurrence
  • Staghorn stones
  • Stone composition
  • Stone site
  • Urates
  • Uric acid stones
  • Urinary stones
  • Urine composition


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