Equivalence and Transfer Problems in Cross-Cultural Research

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Problems in transferring tests from one context to another arise from construct-, method-, or item- level bias. Using examples from research in different parts of the world, the author highlights and discusses specific problems in transferring tests across cultures. A systematic approach to making adaptations to tests and procedures to ensure their suitability in a new cultural context is presented. The approach has a strong focus on community involvement and the use of mixed method approaches during the test adaptation process.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
ISBN (Print)9780080970868
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Emic
  • Etic
  • Test adaptations
  • Test transference


Dive into the research topics of 'Equivalence and Transfer Problems in Cross-Cultural Research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this