Esophageal Carcinoma and Associated Risk Factors: A Case-control Study in Two Tertiary Care Hospitals of Kabul, Afghanistan

Ramin Saadaat, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar, Ahmed Maseh Haidary, Nooria Atta, Tazeen Saeed Ali

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most common cancer among males in Afghanistan, thus we aimed to conduct a case-control study to determine the associated risk factors with EC in two tertiary care hospitals of Kabul, Afghanistan. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 132 EC cases and 132 controls and used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with consideration of 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The results of our study revealed that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was the predominant type of EC constituting 75.8% of the cases. The results of the multivariate logistic analysis showed that males and older ages were at increased risk of developing EC (OR: 4.62, 95%CI, p-value=0.026) and (OR: 1.070, 95%CI, p-value <0.001), respectively. In addition, living in rural areas (OR: 46.64, 95%CI, p-value <0.001), being uneducated (OR: 13.94, 95%CI, p-value=0.042), using oral snuff (OR: 6.10, 95%CI, p-value=0.029), drinking hot tea (OR: 5.719, 95%CI, p-value=0.005), lack of physical exercise (OR: 32.548, 95%CI, p-value=0.001), less fresh fruit consumption (OR: 93.18, 95%CI, p-value<0.001) and family history of cancer (OR: 14.50, 95%CI, p-value=0.003) were significantly associated with the development of EC, while body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol drinking, consumption of spicy food and pickled vegetables did not have a significant association with EC. Moreover, the majority of the cases (83.3%) in our study were from to low-income families and the majority were unemployed (93.9%), of whom (50%) were farmers, who did not show statistically significant association. Conclusion: Our study concluded that EC risk was higher in older ages, males, rural residents, uneducated people, oral-snuff users, hot tea drinkers, fewer fresh fruit consumers, lack of physical exercise, and family history of cancer. Further detailed studies and screening policies of the affected groups are suggested to further elaborate on the subject.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2445-2456
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Management and Research
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • adenocarcinoma
  • esophageal cancer
  • family history
  • risk factors
  • sociodemographic
  • squamous cell carcinoma


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