Evaluating blinatumomab implementation in low- and middle-income countries: a study protocol

Caitlyn Duffy, Victor Santana, Hiroto Inaba, Sima Jeha, Jennifer Pauley, Liz Sniderman, Niharendu Ghara, Naureen Mushtaq, Gaurav Narula, Nickhill Bhakta, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Heather Brandt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The recent implementation of novel therapies has accelerated progress in pediatric cancer care. Despite the significantly poorer survival of patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), administation complexities and other significant resource barriers have limited the translation of these novel therapies in these regions. This study aims to develop a model that can be used to support the implementation of novel therapies, such as blinatumomab (bispecific antibody therapy for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [B-ALL]) in LMIC centers, with the long-term goal of developing an implementation framework for similar future efforts. Methods: In this study, mixed methods will be applied to understand the key contextual considerations that can be accounted for through a training program and prospectively designed implementation activities. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the activities related to implementation evaluation in parallel with a drug donation program. A multidisciplinary research team comprising high- and low-middle income healthcare professionals, industry, and implementation scientists has been assembled with the common goal of improving safe access to blinatumomab. To assess the factors affecting blinatumomab administration, semi-structured interviews with diverse collaborators and quantitative assessments of organizational characteristics will be conducted, together with quantitative and qualitative assessments of feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and cost of blinatumomab implementation. A quantitative assessment of stakeholder perceptions of different implementation strategies used as part of the multifaceted approach will also be performed. Finally, we will examine the key domains and processes used and construct the implementation roadmap for translation of novel therapies. Discussion: This study will rigorously develop an implementation roadmap for translation of novel therapies in low-resource settings. The knowledge gained in the formative assessment will reveal the priority areas and key implementation strategies. Thereby, the resultant roadmap will facilitate future scale-out strategies for novel therapies in LMICs, thus increasing access, building capacity for management, and ultimately improving the care for children in LMICs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number62
JournalImplementation Science Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research
  • Implementation science
  • Low- and middle-income countries
  • Novel therapies
  • Oncology
  • Resource-poor settings


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