Evolution of pH buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes: Homology between humans and Acanthamoeba proteins

Abdul M. Baig, R. Zohaib, S. Tariq, H. R. Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: This study intended to trace the evolution of acid-base buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes. Acanthamoeba castellanii was selected as a model unicellular eukaryote for this purpose. Homologies of proteins involved in pH and water regulatory mechanisms at cellular levels were compared between humans and A. castellanii. Materials & methods: Amino acid sequence homology, structural homology, 3D modeling and docking prediction were done to show the extent of similarities between carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), aquaporin (AQP), band-3 protein and H+ pump. Experimental assays were done with acetazolamide (AZM), brinzolamide and mannitol to observe their effects on the trophozoites of A. castellanii. Results: The human CA1, AQP, band-3 protein and H+-transport proteins revealed similar proteins in Acanthamoeba. Docking showed the binding of AZM on amoebal AQP-like proteins. Acanthamoeba showed transient shape changes and encystation at differential doses of brinzolamide, mannitol and AZM. Conclusion: Water and pH regulating adapter proteins in Acanthamoeba and humans show significant homology, these mechanisms evolved early in the primitive unicellular eukaryotes and have remained conserved in multicellular eukaryotes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-207
Number of pages13
JournalFuture Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Acanthamoeba castellanii
  • Aquaporin
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Evolution of acid-base buffers in eukaryotes
  • Water homeostasis


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