Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among females in South Asia—gap analysis

Jaishri Mehraj, Zain Yar Khan, Dania Khalid Saeed, Sadia Shakoor, Rumina Hasan

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16 Citations (Scopus)


The percentage of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among new and relapse tuberculosis cases in South Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh) ranged from 19% to 23% in 2014. While tuberculosis was reportedly more prevalent in males, a higher preponderance of EPTB was observed in females. National tuberculosis control programs are highly focused on pulmonary tuberculosis. This creates gaps in the surveillance, diagnosis, and study of EPTB among females, which is especially pronounced in the South Asian setting. We have reviewed recently published literatures from January 2010 to June 2016 reporting EPTB in females with a view to evaluate the current epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, and treatment outcomes. We report significant gaps in the surveillance of EPTB among women in South Asia, emphasizing the need for greater focus on EPTB in females to overcome current surveillance and knowledge gaps.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-399
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Mycobacteriology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016


  • Female:male ratio
  • Females
  • South Asia
  • Tuberculosis


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