Facial Soft Tissue Thickness Among Three Skeletal Classes in Adult Pakistani Subjects

Waqar Jeelani, Mubassar Fida, Attiya Shaikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Different facial reconstruction methods rely on the average facial soft tissue thickness values provided in previous studies. Facial soft tissue thickness is influenced by the age, sex, and ethnicity of the individual. The aim of the present study was to determine facial soft tissue thickness of adult Pakistani subjects with different facial morphology. A total of 166 subjects were categorized into three skeletal classes (based on convex, straight, or concave facial profile) employing the classification system used in orthodontics. Facial soft tissue thickness was determined at ten midline points on lateral cephalograms. Significant differences in facial soft tissue thickness were present at glabella, labrale superius, stomion, and labiomentale in males and at labrale superius, labrale inferius, labiomentale, and pogonion in females among different skeletal classes. The current study suggests that the skull morphology-related variations in facial soft tissue thickness should be considered during facial reconstruction to achieve accurate results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1420-1425
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015


  • Cephalometry
  • Craniofacial reconstruction
  • Forensic anthropology
  • Forensic science
  • Skeletal malocclusions
  • Soft tissue thickness


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